Cyber Threats To Canada's Democratic Process

Endnotes

1

See Figure 11 for a description of sophistication levels.

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2

Humphreys, Adrian. “Anonymous leaks another high-level federal document as part of vendetta against government.” The National Post. 26 September, 2015. <http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/anonymous-leaks-another-high-level-federal-document-as-part-of-vendetta-against-government> Accessed: April 2017.

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3

Cyber threats against Canada are individuals or groups that use cyber capabilities against Canadian computers, networks, and other information technology, or the information they contain.

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4

Cyber capabilities are computer and Internet-related activities that can be used to affect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information and information technology.

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5

Cybercriminals hired by other adversaries (e.g. nation-states or political actors) are acting as service providers. We consider such examples based on the intention of the group hiring the service.

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6

In some cases, Canadian election agencies share their voter lists. For example, Elections Canada sends parts of the National Register of Electors to provinces, some municipalities, and to political parties. “Description of the National Register of Electors.” Elections Canada. 20 February 2017. <http://www.elections.ca/content.aspx?section=vot&dir=reg/des&document=index&lang=e Accessed: February 2017.

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7

Electronic voting machines are not regularly used in Canada but are used in some other countries. To use these machines, a voter will go to the polling station and, rather than use a paper ballot, will cast their vote on a touchscreen.

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8

Nakashima, Ellen. “Russian Hackers Targeted Arizona Election System.” The Washington Post. 29 August 2016. <https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/nationalsecurity/fbi-is-investigating-foreign-hacks-of-state-election-systems/2016/08/29/6e758ff4-6e00-11e6-8365-b19e428a975e_story.html?utm_term=.76054fb28944> Accessed: February 2017;. and “Illinois Voter Registration System Records Breached.” State Board of Elections. 31 August 2016. <https://www.elections.il.gov/Downloads/AboutTheBoard/PDF/08_31_16PressRelease.pdf> Accessed: February 2017.

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9

“Top 10 IT Security Actions to Protect Government of Canada Internet-Connected Networks and Information.” Communications Security Establishment. <https://www.cse-cst.gc.ca/en/publication/itsb-89v3> November 2014.

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10

BBC News Staff. “Ghana Election Commission Website Hit by Cyber Attack.” BBC News. 8 December 2016. <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-38247987> Accessed: February 2017.

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11

Escritt, Thomas. “Dutch will hand count ballots due to hacking fears.” Reuters. 1 February 2017. <http://www.reuters.com/article/us-netherlands-election-cyber-idUSKBN15G55A> Accessed: April 2017.

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12

See “Case Study: Cyberespionage Against A Candidate” for a case study of how cyber espionage works.

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13

Office of the Director of National Intelligence. “Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections.” 6 January 2017. <https://www.dni.gov/files/documents/ICA_2017_01.pdf> Accessed: February 2017.

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14

The Darkweb is a collection of websites that are publicly accessible but obscured because users need specific software, configuration and authorization to access these sites.

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15

75% of surveyed Canadians access the news online. Newman, Nic, et al. “Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2016.” Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. <http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/survey/2016/canada-2016> Accessed: April 2017.

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16

Auchard, Eric, and Bate Felix. “French candidate Macron claims massive hack as emails leaked.” Reuters. 6 May 2017. <http://reuters.com/article/us-france-electionmacron-leaks-idUSKBN1812AZ> Accessed: May 2017.

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17

BBC News Staff. “Push to tackle online ‘booter’ services.” BBC News. 5 August 2016. <http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-36993107> Accessed: April 2017.

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18

Malware is short for malicious software and includes any software used to gain access to private computer systems, disrupt computer operations, or gather sensitive information.

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19

The Associated Press. “Ransomware Attack Hits Pennsylvania State Senate Democrats.” The Wall Street Journal. 3 March 2017. <https://www.wsj.com/articles/ransomware-attack-hits-pennsylvania-state-senate-democrats-1488584037> Accessed: April 2017.

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20

Humphreys, Adrian. “Anonymous leaks another high-level federal document as part of vendetta against government.” The National Post. 26 September, 2015. <http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/anonymous-leaks-another-high-level-federal-document-as-part-of-vendetta-against-government> Accessed: April 2017.

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21

CSE detects adversaries probing Government of Canada systems hundreds of millions of times per day.

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22

Freedom House. “Freedom in the World 2017.” <https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2017/canada> Accessed: April 2017.

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